Caused by paramyxovirus (RNA virus) infection.
Mode of spread is by droplet infection.
Period of infectivity is from 4 days before and 2 days after the onset of rash.

Clinical Features

Prodromal Stage
  • Fever
  • Cough, coryza and conjunctivitis
  • Photophobia
  • Malaise

 Koplik’s Spots
They are small, red and irregular lesions on the buccal mucosa with blue-white centers opposite to the lower molar. They appear 1-2 days before and disappear 1-2 days after the appearance of the rash. They are pathognomic of measles.

Exanthematous Stage (Rash)
Maculopapular Rash
  • Red maculopapular rash
  • Pattern – Starts from the back of ear and then spreading downward over the face, neck, trunk and feet. They fades in the same manner.
  • The malaise and fever subside as the rash fades that takes 4 – 5 days.

 Complications (DROPSEA)

  1. Diarrhea
  2. Reactivation of latent TB
  3. Otitis media
  4. Pnemonia
  5. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSP)
  6. Encephalitis
  7. Vitamin A deficiency
  8. Myocarditis
  9. Hepatitis
  10. Keratitis and corneal ulcer
  11. Acute glomerulonephritis


  • Antipyretic
  • Fluid
  • Nutrition
  • Treat bacterial superinfection

Vitamin A supplementation
Treat the complication –For SSP use ribavirin


Passive Immunization for:-
  • Contact under 12 month of age
  • Debilitated children, esp. with malignant disease
  • Pregnant females
  • Patient with active TB
  • Immunodeficient patient

 Active Immunization
  • Given in combination with rubella and mumps vaccine (MMR vaccine) at 9 month
  • Vaccination within 72 hours of exposure is the intervention of choice for susceptible individuals older than 12 months of age.