Caused by paramyxovirus (RNA virus) infection.
Mode of spread is by droplet infection.
Period of infectivity is from 4 days before and 2 days after the onset of rash.
- Cough, coryza and conjunctivitis
They are small, red and irregular lesions on the buccal mucosa with blue-white centers opposite to the lower molar. They appear 1-2 days before and disappear 1-2 days after the appearance of the rash. They are pathognomic of measles.
Exanthematous Stage (Rash)
- Red maculopapular rash
- Pattern – Starts from the back of ear and then spreading downward over the face, neck, trunk and feet. They fades in the same manner.
- The malaise and fever subside as the rash fades that takes 4 – 5 days.
- Reactivation of latent TB
- Otitis media
- Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSP)
- Vitamin A deficiency
- Keratitis and corneal ulcer
- Acute glomerulonephritis
- Treat bacterial superinfection
Vitamin A supplementation
Treat the complication –For SSP use ribavirin
Passive Immunization for:-
- Contact under 12 month of age
- Debilitated children, esp. with malignant disease
- Pregnant females
- Patient with active TB
- Immunodeficient patient
- Given in combination with rubella and mumps vaccine (MMR vaccine) at 9 month
- Vaccination within 72 hours of exposure is the intervention of choice for susceptible individuals older than 12 months of age.